BL Practice

BL Practice #1:Sep.18 9:00-17:00
BL Practice #2:Sep.19 9:00-17:00

The Cheiron2007 curriculum provides participants with an opportunity to experience real experiments at SPring-8 beamlines. The curriculum has 21 parallel, one-day practice courses on 18th and 19th September, and thus each participant can take two courses for the two days.
Participant registrations for each one-day course are made on a first-come, first-served basis. Participants can request registrations for four courses that they wish to take, at the online school registration. The capacity in each one-day course is four or five persons.

When the number of applicants exceeds the quota per a beamline, we regret to tell you that we will not be able to meet your preference.

BL Practice Courses
BL01B1 : XAFS measurement of dilute samples or thin films
Tomoya Uruga (JASRI)
The bending magnet beamline, BL01B1, is used for various applications of XAFS over a wide energy range from 3.8 to 113 keV. In the practical training course, we plan to show how to measure XAFS of dilute samples or thin films, which covers alignment of X-ray optics, alignment of sample position, and adjustment of a 19-element Ge solid-state detector. We will also demonstrate Quick XAFS measurement in transmission mode for standard samples.
BL02B1 : Polarization analysis
Hiroyuki Osumi (JASRI)
X-ray polarization is nothing but a correction factor for crystal structure analysis. But, in some cases, polarization of the scattered X-ray includes significant information about electronic degrees of freedom. In this course students will practice experimental operation and analysis procedure of polarization analysis using an analyzer of a single crystal. This experience holds clues for resonant x-ray scattering and x-ray magnetic scattering experiments.
BL02B2 : Practical Training for Powder Diffraction Experiment at BL02B2
Kenichi Kato (RIKEN)
The high-energy and high-brilliance synchrotron X-ray at SPring-8 allows materials scientists to unravel the structure-property relationship with electron distribution resolution using powder diffractometry. In the present training, we are planning to offer practical technique in the optical alignment, the sample preparation and the measurement procedure for the synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction experiment. If time permits, the fully automatic measurement system with a sample changer and an image recognition system will be shown.
BL04B1 : In situ observation of high pressure phase change of simple material
Yoshinori Tange, Yuji Higo (JASRI)
The BL04B1 beamline is designed particularly for conducting researches on the precise in situ X-ray measurements of the crystal structures and physical properties of minerals under high pressure and high temperature conditions. High pressure and high temperature experiments are performed combining a large-volume multianvil device and an energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction. In the practice, high pressure phase of simple material
(graphite) is observed from the X-ray diffraction pattern.
BL04B2 : Disordered structure probed by high-energy x-ray diffraction technique
Shinji Kohara (JASRI)
High-brilliance and high-energy X-rays are one of biggest advantages of SPring-8. The use of high-energy X-rays allows us to measure diffraction patterns up to high-reciprocal space in a transmission geometry with small scattering angles and small correction terms, which provides more detailed and reliable structural information of disordered materials (glass, liquid, and amorphous materials) than has hitherto been available. In this school, we would like to focus on the structural analysis of disordered materials by the diffraction measurement. We will introduce how we can obtain a reliable diffraction data for liquid or glass and how we can analyze the data. Furthermore we will try structural modelling of disordered materials based on diffraction data employing computer simulation technique.
BL08W : Spin moment determination of ferro- or ferrimagnetic materials using magnetic Compton scattering
Yoshiharu Sakurai (JASRI)
This course provides an opportunity for able beginners to learn the practical details of magnetic Compton scattering. Magnetic Compton scattering is one of the synchrotron-radiation-based techniques to measure the spin moment of ferro- or ferromagnetic materials. The training begins with a brief introduction to magnetic Compton scattering and its techniques, followed by on-the-job trainings for spectrometer calibration, sample setting and data acquisition, with a ferromagnetic Fe reference-sample and a ferromagnetic Ce or Mn compound. If you carry a well-characterized bulk-sample, we will consider its preliminary measurement on your request in advance.
BL13XU : Training for surface x-ray diffraction measurements
Osami Sakata (JASRI)
Beamline BL13XU is dedicated for surface/interface structural studies using diffraction and scattering techniques which is, in particular, called surface x-ray diffraction. Precise determination of surface- atom arrangement calls for typically recording several hundred rocking curves of in-plane diffraction and collecting intensities of crystal -truncation-rod scattering emanating from a reconstructed surface or surface-adsorbed system of a sample in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). Such measurements require us to precisely control two angular parameters: incidence angles from its physical surface of the sample and Bragg planes of interest. Thus it is necessary to orient the physical surface and crystallographic planes of the sample in UHV. The intensities are extremely weak compared with that obtained from a thin film, of course a bulk crystal. Thus surface x-ray diffraction measurements need not only a powerful x-ray source like the SPring-8 standard undulator, but also proper control of a BL monochromator and mirror to make an incident-beam intensity maximum and stable.
A plan for training at Cheiron School is to learn how to orient a sample in UHV and successively make surface x-ray measurements. A principal facility available for this training is a 1-ton UHV chamber mounted on a 2 + 2 type diffractometer for high-angular resolution measurements. We would like to quickly show how to align the beamline optics to tune incident x-rays desired as well.
BL14B2 : Building up an experimental station control software
Yukito Furukawa (JASRI)
The aim of the course is to understand the control system and to obtain a skill for building up a simple experimental programs by using some scripting language. It contains monochromator scanning and photon counting. To examine the program, students will measure X-ray absorption spectra of some metal foils.
BL17SU : Application of LEEM/PEEM at soft x-ray beamline BL17SU
Guo Fangzhun (JASRI), Masato Kotsugi (JASRI)
SPELEEM (Spectroscopic Photoemission & Low Energy Electron Microscope) is a multipurpose & high-performance microscope. Combining the SPELEEM with synchrotron radiation technique allows us to obtain element specific imaging of specimens or to investigate electronic structures from very small area (several tens to hundreds nm). If the magnetic circular or linear dichroism effect at (soft) x-ray region is applied, the magnetic domain contrast of the ferro- and antiferromagnetic materials can be obtained. During our practice time, we will use an Fe single crystal to study the domain structures, nano-size selected area XAS, nano-size selected area XPS et al..
BL19LXU : Pump and probe technique for picosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction
Yoshihito Tanaka (RIKEN)
The pulsed nature of the synchrotron radiation and the synchronization technique between SR pulse and ultrashort laser pulse enable us to make pump and probe measurements with 40 ps time resolution. The time resolved x-ray diffraction experiments will be demonstrated for the lattice dynamics of a single semiconductor crystal. The course may help you with starting the picosecond time-resolved experiments at your stations for investigation on fast structural dynamics.
BL25SU : Soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurement and the related
Tetsuya Nakamura (JASRI)
BL25SU provides circularly polarized soft x-ray of photon-energy between 220 eV and 2000 eV. Periodical helicity switching (0.1 - 10Hz) using the twin helical undulators and high energy resolution of E/DE > 10,000 are the leading features of the beamline. The helicity switching technique gives great advantage to magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurement.
Participants of the experiments at BL25SU during the Cheoron school will take part in soft x-ray MCD measurements. Following an introduction of the optical components and measurement apparatuses installed at the beamline, they will learn how we measure precise MCD spectra and the hysteresis loops. Beam properties such as size and stability will also be verified, since these are important performance characteristics of BL25SU. We believe that the planned course will provide a fruitful opportunity for participants interested in soft x-ray techniques and the study of magnetic materials.
BL27SU : Soft x-ray photoemission and photoabsorption spectroscopy
Yusuke Tamenori (JASRI), Takayuki Muro (JASRI)
Photoemission and photoabsorption spectroscopy using high-resolution soft x-rays will be experienced in this course. A hemispherical photoelectron analyzer is used for photoemission spectroscopy, and photoabsorption spectra will be measured by means of the total fluorescence yield method with an MCP detector. The participants will gain experience in sample transfer, sample manipulation inside a UHV chamber, and data acquisition.
BL28B2 : White X-ray diffraction topography at BL28B2
Kentaro Kajiwara (JASRI), Yasuhiko Imai (JASRI)
Beamline BL28B2 is a multipurpose dedicated white X-ray beamline.
White X-ray diffraction topography is one of the experimental methods performed at the beamline, which is an imaging technique to visualize defects in a single crystal. The technique has been successfully applied to studies of defects and crystal growth in semiconductors, organic crystals, and also protein crystals. In the practical training, we will observe dislocations in a silicon crystal and identify Burgers vectors of them.
BL37XU : X-ray fluorescence analysis using microfocusing optics
Yasuko Terada (JASRI)
BL37XU is designed for application to various X-ray fluorescence analyses.
The beamline has two branches; one is SPring-8 standard undulator-beamline optics branch (Branch-A) and the other is high-energy branch (Branch-B). Major experimental techniques are -X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, TXRF, XRF holography and high-energy XRF analysis. The practice at BL37XU is how to measure micro-XRF of typical specimens, which covers alignment of X-ray focusing optics and adjustment of solid-state detector.
BL38B1 : Data Collection and S-SAD Phasing of Insulin Crystals
Takashi Kumasaka (JASRI)
Phase problem is a major difficulty in protein crystallography. As a recent advancement, S-SAD phasing method has been proposed. It solves the problem by the anomalous effect of sulfur atoms involved in most protein samples. In this exercise, we plan to the data collection of insulin crystal and the determination of its structure. The alignment of the beamline and a sample mounting robot will also be introduced.
BL38B2 : Beam Diagnostics of the SPring-8 Storage Ring
Shirou Takano (JASRI)
Characteristics of synchrotron radiation (SR) are closely related to those of the source electron beam. For example, pulsed nature of SR is originated from bunched structure of the electron beam. Brilliance of SR is dominated by transverse size and angular divergence of the electron beam. This laboratory course is practice at the SPring-8 diagnostics beamline I (BL38B2), where SR form a bending magnet is exploited for diagnostics of the electron beam. The course will include measurement of bunched structure of the electron beam, bunch length and bunch spacing, with a visible light streak camera, and observation of the transverse profile of the electron beam with the X-ray beam imager based on an X-ray zone plate.
BL39XU : Handling of X-ray polarization and application to X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy
Naomi Kawamura (JASRI), Motohiro Suzuki (JASRI)
To measure X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra with high accuracy, a helicity-modulation technique has been developed at BL39XU. Although BL39XU is a hard X-ray beamline with horizontally linear polarization, circularly polarized X-rays are
generated by using the diamond X-ray phase retarder (XPR). The helicities are alternated by changing the offset angle of the XPR.
For high-accuracy XMCD measurement, it is necessary to optimize the tuning of the relation among the undulator, monochromator, and XPR precisely; that is, the undulator gap and the XPR condition must be adjusted according to the X-ray energy. On the other hand, the helicity-modulation technique requires a combination of fast switching of the helicity and a phase-sensitive (lock-in) detection system. This technique provides a dichroic signal with less than 0.01% and with a good signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, extremely high-quality XMCD spectra are obtained in a short acquisition time.
In order to understand polarization control using XPR and the basis of the helicity-modulation method, the following steps are performed in this study.

1. Undulator spectrum measurement by varying the gap value
2. Polarization measurement using a simple polarimeter
3. Synchronous control of undulator gap, monochromator, and XPR
4. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurement:comparison of helicity-modulation, helicity-reversal, and magnetic field-reversal methods
5. Element-specific hysteresis measurement using XMCD or fluorescence XMCD measurement (optional)

Optimization of the beamline optics can be achieved by steps 1 3 . From step 4, the effectiveness of the helicity-modulation technique can be established. Step 5 will clarify the advantages of using XPR.

BL40XU : Instrumentation for small-angle scattering experiments
Naoto Yagi (JASRI)
Small-angle scattering/diffraction experiments require sophisticated optics (monochromator, focusing mirror, slits) and a detector system. Examples at small-angle beamlines (BL40B2 and BL40XU) will be explained. Several typical specimens will be used to demonstrate how actual data collection is performed. Instrumentation for time-resolved experiments is also explained.
BL43IR : Microspectroscopy using infrared synchrotron radiation
Taro Moriwaki (JASRI)
BL43IR provides highly brilliant infrared radiation from a large bending radius (39.3 m) bending magnet. The beamline is suitable for the microspectroscopy applications at the diffraction limit scale of approximately 10-100 micrometer depending on the wavelength. We will provide an opportunity to use the infrared microscope at the beamline of the practical training on the adjustment of the optics, sample preparation, adjustment of the microscope and measurements. We plan to operate the microscope at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, and far infrared region.
BL47XU : Instrumentation for micro-tomography experiments
Kentaro Uesugi (JASRI)
BL47XU is designed and constructed for X-ray micro-imaging experiments in hard X-ray region. The beamline consists of "in-vacuum type" undulator, front-end components, liquid nitrogen cooled monochromator two mirrors and experimental hutch.
The all components must be adjusted for a type of experiments. In BL47XU the following experiments are carried out, projection-type micro-tomography, hard X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, imaging-tomography, micro-beam experiments (XRF and XRD) and some other kinds of experiments.
The practice at BL47XU is how to adjust the beamline components, stages and detector for projection-type X-ray micro-tomography.
BL17SU : Evaluation of soft x-ray beamline
Haruhiko Ohashi(JASRI), Yasunori Senba(JASRI)
A modern soft x-ray monochromator performs both a high resolving power of over 10,000 and a photon flux of over 1010 photons/s. High-resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy such as photoelectron spectroscopy and photoemission spectroscopy has advanced significantly. Heretofore, the absorption spectra of an atom or a monoatomic molecule like N2 and Ne were used for evaluating a soft x-ray monochromator. Recently, high-resolution electron spectroscopy measurements have been considered to be more reliable than absorption spectroscopy, in which the intrinsic lifetime broadening dominates the experimental spectra. In this BL practice we enjoy evaluating a high resolution soft x-ray beamline by measuring the photoelectron spectra (PES) as well as the photoabsorption spectra.